Using lists prepared in advance, some 65,000 Polish intelligentsia, noblemen, clergy, and teachers were killed by the end of 1939 in an attempt to destroy Poland's identity as a nation. When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. By 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews had emigrated to the United States, Argentina, Great Britain, Palestine, and other countries. Study of the era and a willingness to critically examine its mistakes has led to the development of a strong democracy in Germany, but with lingering undercurrents of antisemitism and neo-Nazi thought. Menn søker menn eskorte bergen, the Nazis proposed national and cultural renewal based upon the Völkisch movement. The nsdap daily newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter Ethnic Observer was edited by Rosenberg, who also wrote The Myth of the Twentieth Century, a book of racial theories espousing Nordic superiority. Government agencies also worked to control other carcinogenic substances such as asbestos and pesticides. The Waffen-SS, the military branch of the SS, evolved into a second army. A b Including de facto annexed and incorporated territories.